Missing research focus in end-of-life management of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps
Resource Conservation and Recycling
Expansion of light-emitting diode (LED) lamp has been intensified through the dramatic development of LED technologies stimulated by European Commission directive that has banned inefficient lamp use in 2016 to reduce energy consumption and increase energy independence (EU Commission 2009). By replacing mostly incandescent lamp in 2030, LED lamp will largely capture 74% of the market share leading to a 46% energy consumption reduction worth 30 billion dollar energy cost savings compared to energy price in 2012 in the U.S. (DoE 2012, Aman et al. 2013). The increasing market share of LED lamp is attributable to dramatic increase of luminaire efficacy, increasing integration of LEDs with variety of electrical appliances and gradual reduction of initial cost of purchasing LEDs (Aman et al. 2013). The increasing demand of legislators to switch to energy efficient technologies underlies such technological breakthrough and increasing adoption in the market (Mackinsey & Company, 2012). Thus, after the end of life span, LED lamps are expected to appear in E-waste stream in general and lighting waste in particular. The purpose of this perspective paper, therefore, is to articulate the absence of LED lamp recycling technology and identify the missing research gap regarding appropriate management of end of life LED lamps.