Particulate Matter (PM) Footprint and Human Respiratory Impact by Industrial Sectors and Regions in South Korea
The 9th biennial conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE) and the 25th annual conference of the International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), Chicago, Illinois, USA from June 25-29, 2017.
Since the fine particulate matters occurred from mainly combustion in industry and road transport effect to human respiratory health, the interest and importance are getting increased. Particulate matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air (US EPA, 2016). This complex mixture contains for instance dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. Many scientific researches have linked PM10 and PM2.5 exposure to a variety of problems such as premature death in people with heart or lung disease and increased respiratory symptoms (coughing or difficulty breathing). Therefore, the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) has established an air quality standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and it is effective from January 2015. Also, currently the information of the significant air emissions (e.g. CO, NOx, SOx) including PM10 and PM2.5 are well quantified and monitored in all regoins in South Korea. However, the potential human respiratory impacts of PM by industrial sectors and regions in South Korea is not well studied. In this study, therefore, PM footprint and human respiratory impact by industrial sectors and regions from 2004 to 2015 are quaitifed and evaluated using the Korea national MOE data and regional data of PM10 and PM2.5, NOx and SOx. For the calculation of human respiratory impacts, the particulate matter formation characterization factors from ReCiPe 2008 method were used. As a result, the human respiratory impact are shown and mapped with midpoint (kg PM10-Eq) and endpoint (disability-adjusted life year, DALY) results in each industrial sector and regoin in South Korea. Also we show that how the human respiratory impacts were changed during 10 years and what the main reasons are. The research results will be a valuable information for the human health improvement plans in South Korea.