Site-specific land use impact assessment in the example of agro-ecosystems
Workshop Agrosystem Services 2014 17./18.02.2014 ZALF, Müncheberg, Allemagne
Land use in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) was recognized to be an impact category the most difficult to quantify due to various reasons, namely abundance of land modifications and occupations, multiple ways in which land is valued etc. Jane Bare (2010) emphasizes that “the most important contribution that the land provides is in the form of ecosystem services”. Land use impact assessment (LUIA) is quite different from other impact categories of life cycle assessment (LCA). It requires a new structure to provide an adequate characterization. With the current prevalence of global trading and significant landscape heterogeneity, it is important that this category be site-specific, and applicable to all locations on the globe. Previously, many LCIA methodologies have been applied LUIA with global or site-generic characterization factors (Heijungs et al. 1992; Baan, L., Alkemade, R., & Koellner, T., 2012; Brandão, M., & Canals, L. M., 2012; Koellner, T. et al., 2012; Koellner, T. et al, 2013; Saad, R., Koellner, T., & Margni, M., 2013), while others used regionalized or site-dependent characterization factors meaning the scale of bioms, ecoregions, countries or states in US etc. (Geyer, Lindner, Stoms, Davis, & Wittstock, 2010; Mutel, C. L., Pfister, S., & Hellweg, S., 2012). The importance of such site-generic and site-dependent LUIA is quite high even though stays rough. At the same time we find the lack of researches for site-specific land use impact assessments in LCA. Nevertheless there is a great number of site-specific and landscape level ecosystem services researches in natural sciences communities (e.g. ecology & biology) that have a potential to be valorized in LCA. J. Bare in her work (2010) proposes a first step in the framework of site-specific LUIA through ecosystem services approach. For this aim she proposes to use separate tools (e.g. InVEST). Being one of the first steps for site-specific land use impact assessment in LCA through ecosystem services approach it is still stays a generic method for any of ecosystem service. In our research, we propose a concept of site-specific framework for ecosystem services assessment integrated in databases used for LCA in the example of ecosystem services provided by rapeseed agro-ecosystems in Champagne-Ardenne region, France. We have chosen this crop, as soon as its production in the region has significantly increased during the last decades being seen as a valuable source for bio based economy (e.g. biofuels, biofibers production). Bare, J. (2010). Recommendation for land use impact assessment: first steps into framework, theory, and implementation. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 13(1), 7–18. Heijungs, R. et al, Environmental life cycle assessment of products: guide and backgrounds (Part 1 & 2), CML, Leiden, 1992 Baan, L., Alkemade, R., & Koellner, T. (2012). Land use impacts on biodiversity in LCA: a global approach. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1216–1230. Brandão, M., & Canals, L. M. (2012). Global characterisation factors to assess land use impacts on biotic production. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1243–1252. Koellner, T., Baan, L., Beck, T., Brandão, M., Civit, B., Goedkoop, M., Wittstock, B. (2012). Principles for life cycle inventories of land use on a global scale. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1203–1215. Koellner, T., Baan, L., Beck, T., Brandão, M., Civit, B., Margni, M., Müller-Wenk, R. (2013). UNEP-SETAC guideline on global land use impact assessment on biodiversity and ecosystem services in LCA. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1188–1202. Saad, R., Koellner, T., & Margni, M. (2013). Land use impacts on freshwater regulation, erosion regulation, and water purification: a spatial approach for a global scale level. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(6), 1253–1264. Geyer, R., Stoms, D. M., Lindner, J. P., Davis, F. W., & Wittstock, B. (2010). Coupling GIS and LCA for biodiversity assessments of land use. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 15(5), 454–467. Mutel, C. L., Pfister, S., & Hellweg, S. (2012). GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation. Environmental science & technology, 46(2), 1096–103.