Systematic literature review of eco-innovation models: opportunities and recommendations for future research
Journal of Cleaner Production
he literature on eco-innovation provides extensive contributions for the achievement of the long-term sustainability, which implies an urgent need for holistic changes around business processes. In this sense, several models have been proposed in order to help companies achieve greater understanding of the dynamics of eco-innovation or even structure and facilitate the integration of sustainable processes within them. These eco-innovation models may be classified into different ways, because they not always have the same approach or common language, in terms of applicability and purpose. Classification is an essential tool to facilitate the diffusion of this field of knowledge and to achieve a higher maturity level on the concept of eco-innovation. Through a systematic literature review on eco-innovation models, this study aims to present gaps and opportunities for the advancement of the field, outlining promising directions regarding potential research areas, contents and predominant characteristics for new eco-innovation models. This paper has been developed upon an analytical framework in order to explore the diversity of eco-innovations models and to present suggestions according to several classification criteria (research area, model approach, model characterization, application sectors, generalization level, among others). In general, the models that have been analyzed reveal a predominance of generic and descriptive characteristics. Moreover, there is a gap of eco-innovation models related to organizational structural factors and to social aspects of sustainability. Opportunities for normative models can be highlighted, such as methods, tools and models can be adapted to systems and industrial segments. Therefore, this field of knowledge still offers broad possibilities for new research and new eco-innovation models.